1. Rewrite the following general statements using singular nouns. Make sure that the verbs agree with their subjects. For example:
Engineers must be familiar with computers.
An engineer must be familiar with computers.
Trees produce oxygen.
A tree produces oxygen.
1. Automobiles should be kept in good repair.
2. Bats locate insects by means of sonar.
3. Diplomats should, if possible, be multilingual.
4. Hats are useful in cold weather.
5. Physicists must study a great deal.
6. Elephants can be dangerous.
2. Rewrite the following general statements using plural nouns. Make
sure that the verbs agree with their subjects. For example:
A bicycle is a convenient means of transportation.
Bicycles are a convenient means of transportation.
A secretary should be proficient in spelling and grammar.
Secretaries should be proficient in spelling and grammar.
1. A sportsman needs to remain calm under pressure.
2. An eagle has good eyesight.
3. A conference requires careful planning.
4. A rock is composed of minerals.
5. A potato is rich in starch.
6. An omelette is made of eggs and other ingredients.
3. Rewrite the following general statements using singular nouns.
Make sure that the verbs agree with their subjects. For example:
Frogs are amphibians.
A frog is an amphibian.
Wrenches are tools.
A wrench is a tool.
1. Pines are evergreens.
2. Otters are mammals.
3. Computers are machines.
4. Crabs are crustaceans.
5. Crickets are insects.
6. Oaks are hardwoods.
4. Rewrite the following general statements using plural nouns. Make sure that the verbs agree with their subjects. For example:
A robin is a bird.
Robins are birds.
A refrigerator is an appliance.
Refrigerators are appliances.
1. A schooner is a ship.
2. A mallard is a duck.
3. A rhododendron is a bush.
4. A beech is a tree.
5. A kangaroo is a marsupial.
6. An emerald is a gem.
5. Paying attention to whether the people and things referred to have
been mentioned previously, fill in each blank with a, an or the, or leave the blank empty if no determiner is required.
I once had the chance to see ___ Chinese opera. It was very exciting. As well as ___ singers, there were ___ dancers and ___ acrobats. ___ acrobats staged ___ fights. During ___ fights, some of ___
acrobats wielded ___ swords, and others leaped over ___ swords. Many
of ___ dancers carried scarves. ___ dancers ___ flourished ___
scarves to make ____ patterns in the air.
Behind ___ screen was a group of ___ musicians. ___ musicians played various oriental instruments. ___ instruments included ___ drums, ___ cymbals, ___ flutes and ___ gong. ___ flutes usually played the melody, and ___ gong was sounded at particularly exciting moments.
Of course there were ___ hero and ___ heroine. ___ hero had to
rescue ___ heroine from ___ magician. ___ hero and ___ heroine had
both proved their courage by the end of ___ opera.
6. Fill in each blank with the or leave it empty, as appropriate. Be prepared to justify your choices. For example:
Those participants are ____ lawyers.
Those participants are lawyers.
____ eagles are birds of prey.
Eagles are birds of prey.
___ deaf have their own language.
The deaf have their own language.
___ Dutch are members of the European Union.
The Dutch are members of the European Union.
____ planets circle the sun.
The planets circle the sun.
1. ____ English have a reputation for being animal lovers.
2. ____ wounded were treated immediately.
3. His friends are ____ scientists.
4. ____ crows are black.
5. ____ stars are covered by clouds.
6. ____ French make excellent pastries.
7. Two of the women are ____ reporters.
8. ____ turtles are reptiles.
9. ____ wealthy generally have a good knowledge of finance.
10. ____ Americans like to watch television.
11. They are ____ businessmen.
7. Paying attention to the rules for the use of the with proper nouns, fill in the blanks with the or leave them empty, as appropriate. For example:
___ Rick is one of ___ Smiths who live on our street.
Rick is one of the Smiths who live on our street.
___ Channel Islands lie south of ___ England.
The Channel Islands lie south of England.
___ Rhine River flows through ___ Lake Constance.
The Rhine River flows through Lake Constance.
____ Isle of Man lies in ____ Irish Sea.
The Isle of Man lies in the Irish Sea.
Part of ___ New York City is situated on ___ Long Island.
Part of New York City is situated on Long Island.
1. ____ Hawaiian Islands are in the middle of ____ Pacific Ocean.
2. ____ Salt Lake City is the capital of Utah.
3. ____ London lies on ____ Thames River.
4. ____ Suez Canal connects ____ Mediterranean Sea with Red Sea.
5. ____ Lake Huron and ____ Lake Erie are two of ____ Great Lakes.
6. ____ Calcutta lies north of ____ Bay of Bengal.
7. ____ North Sea separates British Isles from ____ Norway and ____ Denmark.
8. ____ Bay of Biscay lies to the west of ____ France.
9. ____ Orkney Islands are in the north of ____ Scotland.
10. ____ Anticosti Island lies in ____ Gulf of St. Lawrence.
11. Part of ____ Sahara Desert lies in ____ Algeria.
12. ____ Gerry, one of ____ Johnsons, lives on ____ Belleview Street.
13. ____ Mount Kilimanjaro is south-east of ____ Lake Victoria.
14. ____ Vancouver Island lies off the west coast of ____ Canada.
15. ____ Serengeti National Park lies in ____ Tanzania.
8. Paying attention to whether a singular or plural verb should be used, complete each of the following sentences by filling in the blank with is or are. For example:
My scissors ___ very sharp.
My scissors are very sharp.
One pair of scissors __ not enough for the whole class.
One pair of scissors is not enough for the whole class.
Five pairs of scissors ___ sufficient for a small class.
Five pairs of scissors are sufficient for a small class.
1. Her jeans ______ white.
2. Only one pair of jeans ______ clean.
3. Three pairs of jeans ______ being washed.
4. A good pair of pliers ______ handy for repairing a bicycle.
5. His pliers ______ equipped with a sharp edge for cutting wire.
6. Several pairs of pliers ______ on sale.
ANSWERS TO THE EXERCISES for Chapter 15|
Answers to Exercise 1:
1. An automobile should be kept 2. A bat locates 3. A diplomat should
be 4. A hat is 5. A physicist must study 6. An elephant can be
Answers to Exercise 2:
1. Sportsmen need 2. Eagles have 3. Conferences require 4. Rocks
are composed 5. Potatoes are 6. Omelettes are made
Answers to Exercise 3:
1. A pine is an evergreen. 2. An otter is a mammal. 3. A computer
is a machine. 4. A crab is a crustacean. 5. A cricket is an insect.
6. An oak is a hardwood.
Answers to Exercise 4:
1. Schooners are ships. 2. Mallards are ducks. 3. Rhododendrons
are bushes. 4. Beeches are trees. 5. Kangaroos are marsupials.
6. Emeralds are gems.
Answers to Exercise 5:
a Chinese opera. __ singers, __ dancers, __ acrobats. The acrobats,
__ fights. the fights, the acrobats, __ swords, the swords, the dancers,
__ scarves. The dancers, the scarves, __ patterns.
a screen, __ musicians. The musicians. The instruments, __ drums,
cymbals, __ flutes, a gong. The flutes, the gong.
a hero, a heroine. The hero, the heroine, a magician. The hero, the heroine
Answers to Exercise 6:
1. The [nationality ending in sh] 2. The [considered as a class]
3. __ [a profession] 4. __ [general statement] 5. The [obvious what is meant] 6. The [nationality ending in ch] 7. __ [profession]
8. __ [general statement] 9. The [considered as a class]
10. __ [nationality not ending in ch, se or sh] 11. __ [profession]
Answers to Exercise 7:
1. The Hawaiian Islands, the Pacific Ocean 2. __ Salt Lake City, __ Utah 3. __ London, the Thames River 4. The Suez Canal, the Mediterranean Sea, the Red Sea 5. __ Lake Huron. __ Lake Erie,
the Great Lakes 6. __ Calcutta, the Bay of Bengal 7. The North Sea, the British Isles, __ Norway, __ Denmark 8. The Bay of Biscay, __ France 9. The Orkney Islands, __ Scotland 10. __ Anticosti Island
the Gulf of St. Lawrence 11. the Sahara Desert, __ Algeria 12. __ Gerry, the Johnsons, __ Belleview Street 13. __ Mount Kilimanjaro, __ Lake Victoria 14. __ Vancouver Island, __ Canada 15. __ Serengeti National Park, __ Tanzania
Answers to Exercise 8:
1. are 2. is 3. are 4. is 5. are 6. are